The Female and Male Athlete Triad is a syndrome of three interrelated conditions that exist on a continuum of severity, including:


Low Energy Availability with or without Disordered Eating

Energy deficiency is the main cause of the Triad. An energy deficiency is an imbalance between the amount of energy consumed and the amount of energy expended during exercise. The primary cause of the Female and Male Athlete Triad is energy deficiency. Often, this can involve a conscious restriction of food intake, problems with body image and a high drive for thinness. Sometimes, these conditions can lead to disordered eating, or more serious eating problems, like anorexia or bulimia.


Menstrual Disturbances & Amenorrhea in Women

The most serious menstrual problem associated with the Triad is amenorrhea, defined as no menstrual period for 3 months or more. However, athletes who have irregular menstrual cycles are also susceptible to the effects of the Triad.

Altered Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis & Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in Men

The reproductive problems associated with the Triad in men include reduced/low testosterone, oligospermia, and decreased libido.


Bone Loss, Osteoporosis & Bone Stress Injuries

Individuals with the Triad are at higher risk for low bone mass leading to weakened bones, called osteoporosis in its severe form. This type of bone loss can cause an increased risk of fractures, including stress fractures.

The Female and Male Athlete Triad Model


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